It was in 1942 that the late Dr. V.S. Sukthankar was engaged to deliver four lectures on the ‘Meaning of the Mahabharata’ under the auspices of the University of Bombay. However, the fourth and last lecture was not delivered on account of his sad sudden demise on the morning of the day fixed for it. The Manuscript (Ms.) of these lectures-a veritable treasure to cherish had remained lost to the world of scholars for the long period of fifteen years. It beared the title “Four Lectures on the Meaning of the Mahabharata.” This rather heavy-looking title has been abridged here in publication into the substantial title “On the Meaning of the Mahabharata.” In a great many places, sentences or paragraphs have been placed in rectangular brackets in pencil. This bracketed material has been retained in the body of this book. Secondly, an alternative word or phrase is occasionally found written with a pencil in the margin along with an underscoring of the relevant word or words in the text. It is thought advisable to retain the text of the script as it stands, leaving such marginal alternatives alone. However, there is one exception: Dr. Sukthankar had rewritten in pencil almost a whole para at the end of the third lecture. This pencil-script is incorporated in the body of the book. A facsimile of this page is reproduced as the frontispiece. An English rendering of the German quotation from OLDENBERG is given in an Appendix for the convenience of the general reader. In Index I Sanskrit quotations are printed in Devanagari for the benefit of those not quite conversant with the transiliteration.